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ABECB Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis
AMR Antimicrobial resistance
ASP Antimicrobial stewardship programme
b.d. Twice a day
CABSI Catheter-associated blood stream infection
CA-MRSA Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
CAP Community-acquired pneumonia
cap. Capsule
CBA Colistin base activity
CC17 Clonal complex17
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CFU Colony-forming unit
CHP Centre for Health Protection
CLSI Clinical laboratory standards institute
CPE Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae
CRAB Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
CRE Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae
CSF Cerebrospinal fluid
DRSP Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
ESBL Extended-spectrum β-lactamase
FDA Food and Drug Administration
g Gram
HA Hospital Authority
HACEK Haemophilus species, Aggregatibacter species, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella species
HA-MRSA Healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
HAP Hospital-acquired pneumonia
HDU High dependency unit
HIV Human immunodeficiency virus
HK Hong Kong
HSCT Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation
I.M. Intramuscular
I.V. Intravenous
ICU Intensive care unit
IU International units
IVDU Intravenous drug user
kg Kilogram
LD Legionnaires’ disease
MDR-TB Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
μg Microgram
mg Milligram
MIC Minimal inhibitory concentration
mL Millilitre
MRAB Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
MRMP Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae
MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MS-MRSA Multi-susceptible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MSSA Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus
NDM New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase
P.O. Per oral
PCR Polymerase chain reaction
PID Pelvic inflammatory disease
PVL Panton-Valentine leukocidin
q.i.d. Four times daily
SAP Severe acute pancreatitis
spp. Species
syr. Syrup
t.d.s. Three times daily
tab. Tablet
TB Tuberculosis
TTP Time to positivity
UAT Urinary Legionella antigen test
VRE Vancomycin-resistant enterococci
VREfm Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium
WBC White blood cell
XDR-TB Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis